Pros and Cons of Watching Television


Many of us love watching TV especially during our free time and if we don’t have anything to do. We like watching TV while eating our favorite snacks or hanging around in a friend’s place. Either way we are entertained when we watch TV. There are many different programs we can watch on TV depending on our mood and our personality. Some love watching comedy and talk shows while others particularly kids and those who are young at heart love watching cartoons on Cartoon Network or Disney channel.

But then, watching TV has its advantages and disadvantages. Experts say that too much watching of TV especially among children is not good for the health and the mind. TV can be entertaining and informative yet at times it can be damaging and harmful.

Below are the Pros and Cons of watching TV.


1.) Entertainment and Laughter

We are entertained by shows we love to watch. We laugh at things we find funny and comical in the TV program we are watching. We also love to dance or sing along with celebrities we see on TV and some of us even copy their dance moves and singing styles.

2.) Information and How-To

We learn a lot of information about places and people that we usually don’t learn on magazines, books and newspapers. There are travel shows that show us beautiful places in the world and inform us the culture of different countries which can be a great help especially if we are planning to travel. We also easily learn how to cook new recipes by watching cooking shows and we can learn doing some other stuff through programs that show step-by-step procedures of performing a particular work, exercise or other interesting stuff.

3.) Improve Memory and Easy Learning

We usually take note of the time schedule for our favorite programs especially if it is only shown once or twice a week. We tend to store and recall the things that recently happened in our favorite show before the next episode will be shown on TV. This will help enhance our memory which we can apply on our daily life. For children, it is easier to learn math, science, alphabet and other subject matters if someone can show them how to do it like counting, identifying objects and a lot more. Educational TV shows are available for children to watch and learn.

4.) Bonding With Family and Friends

Watching TV is a great way to bond with family and friends especially on weekends. You can laugh and discuss things that you see on TV. That can be really fun.

5.) Awareness and Alertness

Weather reports and current news on different parts of the worlds can make you aware of what is happening outside your country. You can also be alert when there is an incoming typhoon in your area and that can help you get prepared.


1.) Decline in creativity and imagination.

TV shows including commercials have tendency to share their creative works on us and impart their ideas and opinions on us which is not favorable and can lead to a decline in our creativity and imagination since we can not think on our own since creative stuff are readily available and shared to us.

2.) Health problems

We usually eat junk foods or any of our favorite snacks while watching TV. This is not good for our health because we tend to eat a lot while we are sitting down facing the television. This can lead to obesity since we don’t move a lot when we watch TV. This can also lead to other serious ailments caused by eating a lot and moving less.

3.) Makes people lazy

Most of us get hooked when watching programs of our favorite TV channel. We sometimes even forget to do our work or other important things because we got engaged in the show we are watching. Some people forget to do their household chores because they would rather watch TV than work.

4.) Some shows don’t teach good values.

There are TV programs that do not teach good values particularly to children. Instead of teaching them good deeds they even imitate, re-enact or spoof important things happening around us which is not good for children to watch.

To sum up, in watching TV you should choose and monitor the TV programs that you and your children should watch. Choose programs that can help you learn and grow as a person. You should also limit the time your children spend in watching TV. The maximum number of hours small kids should watch TV is 3 hours while for teenagers you should make sure they watch good shows only when they are done with homework and projects.


Source by Jimmy Hermann

Life Insurance – Easy to Find Cheap Policies


Nowadays there is a growing interest in life insurance, both in the United States and worldwide. This is likely due to the ever growing awareness of the benefits of insurance, and to decreasing costs due to lower mortality rates. Either way, for those interested in locating the lowest cost policy for their needs, the basic question remains: How do I locate the right policy at the lowest cost?

Most everyone has access to the Internet (aka the World Wide Web). Still, even with the use of the Internet to search for a policy that uniquely meets your needs, the task can be daunting. In this article we'll try to make your search easier.

Your first step in the search process will involve preparation. You will have to answer the following basic questions:
O How much can I afford to pay? 5% of income is a typical guideline.
O What type of coverage do I need? To protect against lost income over your working lifetime, and / or to cover any large debt that will be paid off over a short time.
O What type of policy do I prefer? Term Life (pure insurance and the cheapest), or Whole Life or Universal Life (insurance plus investment). You might also want a combination of the two.

Your answers to these questions will be crucial for locating the right policy to meet your needs; Both financially and emotionally (you may sleep better knowing you are properly insured at an affordable price).

Just consider there are tens of thousands of insurance carriers offering hundreds of thousands of insurance plans. What a daunting task to face in just becoming aware of all the possible plans and options. It certainly would make sense to have the help of a licensed and experienced broker in locating quickly a plan that will best meet your needs.

How can this be accomplished on the Internet? It is surprisingly quite easy. All that's needed is for you to search for broker websites by using the term: life insurance independent agent. This will provide you with a list of independent insurance agents (or brokers). Understand that independent agents and brokers represent multiple insurance carriers which should lead to an unbiased perspective. When you peruse the search page, try to locate an independent agent directory; It will provide a convenient listing of agents to contact It is suggested that contact several independent agents or brokers to get the broadest list of life insurance plans that meet your needs.

Incidentally, there should be no charge by the agent or broker for any assistance; They will be compensated by the insurance carrier that you select.

There are two major benefits to be gained by using an independent insurance agent or broker, as opposed to obtaining quotes from individual insurance carriers:
O Price comparisons will be on comparable plans (apples-to-apples). That is, the agent or broker will select similar plans for comparison.
O You will receive excellent support in locating exactly what is needed for your specific circumstances. The agent or broker will make suggestions regarding options / riders that will address your requirements.

If you have access to the Internet, you will find it far easier today to obtain a life insurance policy that meets your needs at the cheapest price.


Source by R. Dodger

Digital Phone Lines & Credit Card Terminals – Why They Don’t Go Together


Does this sound familiar?

Your phone service was recently upgraded from the old style analogue lines to a new, state-of-the-art digital technology. All of your phone calls are now crystal clear. You can get connected to the Internet 100x faster and your e-mail loads in the blink of an eye.

Phone companies are switching their systems to the latest technologies in order to better serve their customers. Out with the old, in with the new.

But, what happened to your credit card terminal? It suddenly doesn’t work as well as it use to, or perhaps not at all. Your business is suddenly at a stand-still.

Ringing a bell yet?

It certainly does for me. I hear it almost every day. Over the past few years this has become a common occurrence. In fact, if I had a quarter for every time I’ve heard of this problem I could buy a tropical island and build a five star resort, complete with an18 hole mini-golf course.

Here’s the problem. Credit card terminals are equipped with “analogue” phone modems. Those modems are built to work with the analogue lines that were just replaced with your new digital service. This probably doesn’t mean much to you. You might be wondering why this should make any difference at all. A phone line is a phone line, right? Well, not exactly….let me explain.

Analogue modems operate within a band of frequencies between 300 to 3400 hertz. In order for it to function properly, it requires a phone line that also operates within this frequency range. Your digital line speaks an entirely different language. It operates at frequencies between 25khz (kilohertz) and 1.1mhz (megahertz), which is significantly faster than your analogue lines.

These conflicting frequencies create “echoes” or “line noise” when the terminal attempts to dial out to process. Since the terminal’s modem does not have the ability to properly adapt and filter out these noises, the communication breaks down and fails. In rare cases, the digital signals can actually overwhelm the terminal’s modem, causing it to burn out.

So the question becomes, what can be done to solve this?

There is a device that you can purchase from your local electronics store for about $15 – $20. It’s called a DSL Filter. This handy little gadget will filter out the digital information coming in from your phone lines and send it to your terminal at lower frequencies, effectively cancelling out the line noise. 98% of the time the filter resolves the problem and our merchants are able to get back to business. There are unfortunately cases where it doesn’t work. For those merchants that fall into that 2%, we offer the following solutions:

  • Contact your phone company and request an analogue phone line be installed. This line will be used only for your credit card terminal
  • If you have a fax at your location, connect a phone line splitter to that wall jack, connect your terminal to one side and the fax to the other. In most cases we have found that fax machines are connected to dedicated analogue phone lines and are not replaced when the digital service is installed.
  • Upgrade to a terminal that supports an IP/Ethernet connection
  • Switch to a web based or PC based processing program.

Until next time…Thanks for reading.


Source by Jeff Zervos

The Man Who Could Have Become Bill Gates


The Legend Goes Like This: One fateful day in the summer of 1980, three buttoned-down IBMers called on a band of hippie programmers at Digital Research Inc. (DRI) located in Pacific Grove, Calif. They hoped to discuss licensing DRI’s industry-leading operating system, Control Program for Microcomputers (CP/M). Instead, DRI founder Gary Kildall blew off International Business Machine (IBM) to gallivant around in his airplane and the frustrated IBMers turned to Gates for their operating system.

This anecdote has been told so often that techies need only be reminded of “the day Gary Kildall went flying” to recall the rest. Gates offered to provide IBM an operating system too, even though he didn’t have one at the time. This required a hasty purchase. While he’s revered for his technical innovations, many believe Kildall made one of the biggest mistakes in the history of commerce. The saga of the computing industry is rich with outsize characters and surprising plot turns, but there’s one story that has risen over time to mythic proportions. It’s the tale of how software pioneer Gary Kildall missed out on the opportunity to supply IBM with the operating system for its first PC-essentially handing the chance of a lifetime and control of tech’s future, to rival Bill Gates and Microsoft Corp. (MSFT). In the process, he may have missed out on becoming the world’s richest man. The Book: They Made America by Harold Evans, is certain to elicit cries of protest.

That’s because it attacks the reputations of some of the key players of the early PC era-Gates, IBM and Tim Paterson (born 1956). “The Father of DOS”, an American computer programmer, the Seattle programmer who wrote an operating system, QDOS, based partly on CP/M that became Microsoft’s DOS. Paterson squirms, for instance, at the implication that he’s fixated on his authorship of DOS. He holds a profile in Forbes, contrived as a first-person account. “I was 24 when I wrote DOS,” it begins. “It’s an accomplishment that probably can’t be repeated by anyone ever.” Evans asserts that Paterson copied parts of CP/M and that IBM tricked Kildall, because Gates rather than the more innovative Kildall prevailed, according to the book, the world’s PC users endured more than a decade of crashes with incalculable economic cost in lost data and lost opportunities.

David G. Lefer, one of Evans’ two collaborators, says: “We’re trying to set the record straight. Gates didn’t invent the PC operating system and any history that says he did is wrong.” There’s no doubt that Gary Kildall an American computer scientist and microcomputer entrepreneur was one of the pioneers of the industry. He invented the first operating system for microcomputers in the early 1970s, making it possible for hobbyists and companies to build the first personal computers. Legalities aside, Microsoft’s original DOS was based in part on Kildall’s CP/M. His insight was, that by creating an operating system separate from the hardware, applications could run on computers that were made by different manufacturers. On July 8, 1994, Gary Kildall (May 19,1942-July 1994) fell at a Monterey, CA. biker bar during a biker brawl and hit his head. The exact circumstances of his death and injury remain unclear; Kildall’s colleagues recall him as creative, easygoing and adventurous.

Kildall preferred to leave the IBM affair in the past and to be known for his work before and afterward, he continually faced comparisons between himself and Bill Gates as well as fading memories of his contributions. In addition to flying, he loved sports cars, auto racing, boating and he had a lifelong love of the sea. Although his career in computing spanned more than two decades, he is mainly remembered in connection with IBM’s unsuccessful attempt in 1980 to license CP/M for the IBM PC. Gates bought Tim Paterson’s program, called QDOS, for approx. $75,000, renamed it DOS, improved it and licensed it to IBM for a low per-copy royalty fee. The rest is history. (Bill Gates Net Worth:$53 Billion: 2010).

Paterson passed in and out of Microsoft during the 80’s, but returned for good in 1990. Paterson has patents and industry awards to his professional credit (including the Stewart Alsop Hindsight Award in 1991, recognized along with Bill Gates). He’s now retired, but the prominent “First Place” trophies and clippings on the wall of his Building 2 office come from the world of off-road racing, in which he bangs a four-wheel drive Mazda around gravel back roads throughout the Northwest. “I’m still having lots of fun,” he said.

I hope you enjoyed my article.


Source by Larry Bussey

Introduction to Computer Monitors


A monitor is the primary output device for a computer. The two main types of monitors currently in use are Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) also known as flat panel display, and the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), which is an older technology. Each has advantages and disadvantages.

Most older monitors today use cathode ray tube technology, which was first developed for use in television sets. The cathode is a negatively charged electrode that shoots a beam of electrons towards a positively charged electrode, known as an anode. The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns (cathodes) at one end, which fire a stream of electrons at a screen at the other end. The inside of the screen is covered with a matrix of dots composed of phosphorescent material, known as phosphors. When the phosphors are struck by electrons, they emit light. Phosphors are organized in groups of three, known as a pixel. Each pixel contains a dot that emits one of the three basic colors: red, green, and blue. Magnetic coils in the tube control the direction of the electron stream, and a control grid determines the color combination on the screen. The electron stream starts at the top of the screen moving from left to right, line by line to build an image.

An LCD monitor on the other hand uses a layer of liquid crystal material sandwiched between two grids of electrodes, one arranged in columns, the other in rows. These grids in turn are enclosed by a layer of polarizing material made out of plastic or glass. These polarizing layers are aligned so as to prevent light from passing through when the electrodes are not activated.

To generate an image, light is passed through the first polarized layer. As the light passes through liquid crystal material, the polarity is changed to allow it to pass through the second polarized layer. This is done by manipulating the electrode grids. The pixels are formed by liquid crystal cells that change the direction of light passing through them in response to an electrode grid.

LCD monitors today most commonly used what is known as thin film transistor technology (TFT), in which a transistor is placed at each intersection of the electrode grids, enhancing the signal and therefore the picture quality. This is also known as active matrix display, as opposed to the older technology known as passive matrix display.

There are many features to be considered when choosing a monitor. Some of the more important ones are: screen size, resolution, dot pitch, refresh rate, and response time. Screen size refers to the diagonal length of the screen surface. Resolution refers to the number of pixels that the monitor can display, for example 640 x 480, which indicates 640 pixels horizontally by 480 pixels vertically. The more pixels displayed, the sharper the image. Dot pitch is the distance between dots, expressed in millimeters, such as.25mm, with the smaller the number the better the image. The refresh rate for CRT monitors, or response time for LCD monitors, is the speed at which a monitor builds an image. The quicker the response time or refresh rate, the better the image.

Generally speaking, LCD monitors take up considerably less space than a CRT monitor and are lighter. In addition, LCD monitors use less electricity. However, they are usually more expensive, although this may be partially offset in the long run by the reduced electricity usage.

CRTs usually have higher refresh rates than the response times of LCD monitors, which reduces eyestrain and may be preferable for those who spend a great deal of time in front of a computer. CRT monitors can display at several resolution settings, while LCD monitors use only one resolution, called the native resolution. This can present a problem for high end gaming and graphics displays.

While LCD monitors were initially higher in price and lower in quality versus CRT monitors when they first came out years ago, the technology has improved drastically and LCD monitors now compare favorably in price and display quality to CRT monitors. LCD monitors are the monitors of the future and will eventually make CRT monitors obsolete. For more information about which are the best monitors to buy, click on Computer Monitors There you will find a comparison of the five best all purpose LCD computer monitors.


Source by Lorenzo Loero

Future Developments In Processing And Storage


Computer developers are obsessed with speed and power constantly seeking ways to promote faster processing and more main memory in a smaller area. IBM for instance came up with a new manufacturing process (called silicon-insulator) that has the effect of increasing a chip’s speed and reducing its power consumption. These chip’s released in 2001 are 30% faster.

DSP chips: Processors for the Post-Pc Era

Millions on people may be familiar with the “Intel Inside” slogan calling attention to the principal brand of the microprocessor used in microcomputers. But they probably are unaware that they are more apt to go through the day using another kind of chip-digital signal processors (DSP’s), integrated circuits designed for high speed data manipulation, Made mainly by Texas Instruments but also by Lucent, Motorola, and Analog Communications, and image manipulations. Made mainly by devices, DSPs are designed to manipulate digital signals in speech music and video, and so they are found in pagers, cell phones, cars, hearing aids, and even in washing machines.

Digital signal processing is present only one-fifth the size of the $21 billion microprocessor business. But in most post-PC era, communications and internet driven devices – which need to handles enormous streams of real world information, such as sounds and images are expected to supplant the personal computer. Thus in 10 years its possible that DSP’s could outsell Microprocessors.


Nanotechnology, nanoelectronics, nanostructures, all start with a measurement known as nanometer. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter, which means we are operating at the level of atoms and molecules. A human hair is approximately 100,000 nano meters in diameter.

In nanotechnology, molecules are used to create tiny machines for holding data and performing tasks. Experts attempt to do nanofabrication by building tiny nanostructures one atom or molecule at a time. When applied to chips and other electronic devices, the field is called nanoelectronics.

Today scientists are trying to simulate the on/off of traditional transistors by creating transistor switches that manipulate a single electron, the sub-atomic particle that is the fundamental unit of electricity. In theory a trillion of these electrons could be put on a chip the size of fingernail. Scientists have already forged layers of individual molecules into tiny computer components into devices called chemically assembled electronic devices, or CAENs. These machines would be billions of times more powerful than today’s personal computers.

CAEN components are supposed to be up and running within 10 years. But computer makers are already getting some payoffs from nanotechnology, which is being used to build read/write heads for hard disks drives, improving the speed with which computers can access data.

Optical Computing

Today’s computers are electronic, tomorrow’s might be optical, or opto-electronic using light, not electricity. With optical technology a machine using lasers, lenses and mirrors would represent the on/off codes of data with pulses of light.

Light is much faster than electricity. Indeed, fiber optic networks, which consist of hair-thin glass fibers instead of copper wire, can move information at speeds 3000 times faster than conventional networks. However the signals get bogged down when they have to be processed by silicon chips. Optical chips would remove the bottleneck. (Someday theoretically, it is conceivable that computers could operate even faster than the speed of light. For generations, physicists thought nothing was faster than light moving in vacuum at about 186,000 miles per second.)

DNA Computing

Potentially, biotechnology could be used to grow cultures of bacteria that when exposed to light emit a small electrical charge, for example. The properties of biochip could be used to represent the on/off digital signals used in computing. Or a strand of synthetic DNA might represent information as a pattern of molecules, and the information might be manipulated by subjecting it to precisely designed chemical reactions that could mark or lengthen the strand. For instance, instead of using binary it could manipulate the four nucleic acids, which holds the promise of processing big numbers. This is entirely non digital way of thinking about computing.

Imagine millions of nanomachines grown from microorganisms processing information at the speed of light and sending it over far-reaching pathways. What kind of changes could we expect with computers like those?

Quantum Computing

Sometimes called the “ultimate computer” the quantum computer is based on quantum mechanics, the theory of physics that explains the erratic world of the atom. Where as an ordinary computer stores information as 0s and 1s represented by electrical currents or voltages that are either high or low, a quantum computer stores information by using states of elementary particles. Scientists envision using the energized and relaxed states of individual atoms to represent data. For example, hydrogen atoms could be made to switch off and on like a conventional computer’s transistors by moving from low energy states (off) to high energy states (on).

Other Possibilities: Molecular & Dot Computers

In the molecular computer, the silicon transistor is replaced with a single molecule. In the dot computer, the transistor is replaced by a single electron. These approaches such as mass producing atomic wires and insulators. No visible prototypes yet exist.


Source by Talha Bin Shakeel

How To Cuckold My Husband? Easy Steps


You ask: How to cuckold my husband? What follows are very easy steps that have proven to work time and time again for thousands of women like yourself.


You should know that almost every man WANTS to be cuckolded. You just need to break through his male ego. Beneath the surface your husband will probably wish to submit himself to your dominance.

Begin by confronting him. Tell him that you want to cuckold him and tell him that you want him to at least TRY to go along with it (to see if he likes it… which he probably will).


Your new relationship needs new rules. Make it very clear than if he follows rules he gets rewarded; if he breaks them, he gets punished. The rules imposed should be designed to remind him of your dominance in the relationship. Start with just a few rules (so he can get used to it) and then build them up and up. Common first-time rules are as follows: he must do whatever you tell him, he cannot orgasm without permission, he cannot ask for sexual interactions with you, he must address you as Mistress or Goddess to show your dominant role.


It is your goal to get your husband to gradually relinquish his manliness. Give him a boyish or a feminine name. For example, if he is called Christian, you could rename him Chrissy or Christine. You should command him to begin wearing female clothing too. He can start by wearing female underwear. Let him know, constantly, that you no longer view him as a real man, more of a girl. His “manhood” is too small to make him a real man. Therefore, you no longer allow him to have sexual relations with you. The most you let him do is, perhaps, perform oral – as a woman would.

Sexual Abstinence

The greatest power you wield over your husband is your sexuality. When you take sexual relations away from him, he will want it all the more. To make him want it even more, you can dress sexy, work out, and act in a more sexual manner, and flirt with other men to remind your husband of your sexuality and his position in the relationship. As rewards for good behavior, you can reward your husband with treats of a sexual nature, but never allow him penetrative interactions.


It is imperative for you to be strict. Never weaken your positive by giving in to demands. Take away all of the things in life that give your husband pleasure and ONLY return some of them when he earns them. And, thus, take them away as punishments. Be strict in all your interactions. Do not be afraid to shout at him or put him over your knee for a spanking.

You asked yourself “how to cuckold my husband” and these are the most common steps to doing just that.


Source by Davina Anderson

Where Have All The Cheap Flights and Holidays Gone?


Not so very long ago, it was always possible to grab a holiday or flight bargain by waiting until the last day or two before departure. Now the game has changed. Here is an outline of the factors which have caused the change.

The main driver for holiday costs up to the 1980’s / early 1990s has been the cost of airline seats. Tour operators had the choice to use scheduled carriers with special IT rates or group rates: but they also had the choice of chartered flights. In both scenarios, they had to make a commitment to a seasonal programme, and built their prices around seasonal yield. Especially in the case of charter flight series, an empty seat on the day of travel was a loss of value.

A well-managed programme allowed a certain number of empty seats (especially in low season) to be an acceptable loss – and one which could be mitigated by seat sales at any price the market would allow. Thus cheap flights, and the holidays which formed part of the packages, were available days before departure for those with a flexible attitude to destination and dates.

As bigger operators took control of all elements of the holiday package, “in-house” airlines took the management of this cost balance to a different level. Their pricing policies – or “yield management” equations – could be handled in the context of overall profit margins of the holiday company as a whole. But it is how these in-house airlines are run which pinpoints a major difference in those policies.

The rise of the so called “no frills” airlines has overturned the old pricing models. They no longer discount the day before you fly. Ryanair and easyJet amongst many others now use a pricing model first mooted by US carrier Southwest Airlines. And holiday company “in-house” airlines have followed suit.

What Southwest realised is that once you introduce an uncertainty about whether the price will fall at a later date, many people will delay buying. The “no frills” carriers, under the guise of offering absurdly low, loss-leading fares, have the advantage of controlling all their own sales through phone sales and online. Thus they can change the price every minute, based on “yield management” algorithms. They use that control to manage expectations of the buying public. They have chosen to ensure that prices continue to rise until take off – so if you resist buying early, you will never again see the price as low.

This policy – now taken up by in-house holiday airlines, encourages commitment to a specific flight (and also holiday) as early as possible. Cheap, last-minute bargains have largely been replaced by “early bird” offers and “points” cards to generate sales for slow trade periods or low season capacity – without unduly reducing the price the airlines and holiday companies can command for the last-minute traveller.


Source by Jimi St. Pierre

History of the Computer – Cache Memory Part 2 of 2


(Times and speeds quoted are typical, but do not refer to any specific hardware, merely give an illustration of the principles involved.)

Now we introduce a ‘high speed’ memory with a cycle time of, say 250 nanoseconds between the CPU and the core memory. When we request the first instruction, at location 100, the cache memory requests addresses 100,101,102 and 103 from the core memory all at the same time, and retains them ‘in cache’. Instruction 100 is passed to the CPU for processing, and the next request, for 101, is filled from the cache. Similarly 102 and 103 are handled at the much increased repeat speed of 250ns. In the meantime the cache memory has requested the next 4 addresses, 104 to 107. This continues until the predicted ‘next location’ is incorrect. The process is then repeated to reload the cache with data for the new address range. A correctly predicted address, when the requested location is in cache is known as a cache ‘hit’.

If the main memory is not core, but a slower chip memory, the gains are not as great, but still an improvement. Expensive high speed memory is only required for a fraction of the capacity of the cheaper main memory. Also programmers can design programs to suit the cache operation, for instance by making a branch instruction in a loop take the next instruction for all cases except the final test, maybe count=0, when the branch occurs.

Now consider the speed gains to be made with disks. Being a mechanical device, a disk works in milliseconds, so loading a program or data from disk is extremely slow in comparison, even to core memory – 1000 times faster! Also there is a seek time and latency to be considered. (This is covered in another article on disks.)

You may have heard the term DMA in relation to PCs. This refers to Direct Memory Access. Which means that data can be transferred to or from the disk directly to memory, without passing through any other component. In a mainframe computer, typically the I/O or Input/Output processor has direct access to memory, using data placed there by the Processor. This path is also boosted by using cache memory.

In the PC, the CPU chip now has built-in cache. Level 1, or L1, cache is the primary cache in the CPU which is SRAM or Static RAM. This is high speed (and more expensive) memory compared to DRAM or Dynamic RAM, which is used for system memory. L2 cache, also SRAM, may be incorporated in the CPU or externally on the Motherboard. It has a larger capacity than L1 cache.


Source by Tony Stockill